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On September 10, 2019, a press conference was held at the Paris Mayor’s Office, where the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) and the FIA Foundation released the initial findings and statistics from EDAR’s successful remote-sensing data collection campaign in Paris during the summer of 2018. This campaign was a part of The Real Urban Emissions Initiative (TRUE), an initiative established in cooperation with C40 Cities, the Global New Car Assessment Programme (Global NCAP), and Transport and Environment (T&E).  During this campaign, HEAT’s EDAR system measured more than 180,000 vehicles in a few short weeks, which, as stated by the TRUE Initiative, “is the largest European dataset from any remote-sensing campaign lasting less than a month.” Additionally, the ICCT released a comprehensive white paper and fact sheets that detail the study’s unique findings.

  • NOx emissions from Euro 6 diesel cars were:

    • 4.8 times higher than Euro 6 petrol cars

    • 6 times over the laboratory limits

    • Only 18% lower than the oldest petrol cars

  • Euro 2 to Euro 5 diesel cars show little improvement, while Euro 6 show modest improvement.

  • High outside temperatures increase NOx emissions.

    • Emissions increased by 20% to 30% when the ambient temperature is above 30°C as compared to when the ambient temperature is between 20 and 30°C.

    • Typical Real Driving Emissions (RDE) tests are performed at temperatures not exceeding 35°C and allow for a 60% increase in NOx emissions if the temperature while testing is between 30 and 35°C. Consequently, this Paris study utilizing EDAR illustrates the effects on emissions at much warmer temperatures, allowing for a greater understanding of the impacts of rising temperatures.

    • Details on these findings are outlined in ICCT’s fact sheet and report.


  • Euro 5 and 6 diesel cars, which are currently allowed into Paris LEZs, contributed to 63% of total passenger vehicle NOx emissions in this study.

  • NOx emissions from Euro VI were lower than Euro V buses.

    • City Transit = 59% lower

    • Coach Buses = 84% lower

  • Euro VI buses emit less NOx than Euro 6 diesel cars.

  • Two- and three-wheeled vehicles emit significantly higher amounts of CO, PM, & NOx than petrol cars.

    • In this category of vehicles, EDAR collected 3,455 measurements during the study in Paris.

    • Although these vehicles represent a small sample of the overall tested fleet, it was found that they have a “disproportionate impact on air pollution levels.”

    • More details on these findings can be seen in ICCT’s fact sheet and report

  • NOx emissions of Euro 6d-TEMP diesel cars observed in Paris were around 70% lower than diesel vehicles certified to earlier Euro 6 stages.

“The Largest Remote Sensing Data Sets Collected in Europe to Date”

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Number of remote-sensing measurements by vehicle category, Euro standard, and fuel type.

Source: Remote sensing of motor vehicle emissions in Paris White Paper

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Estimated average distance-specific NOx emissions by fuel type and Euro standard for passenger cars measured in Paris in 2018. The number of measurements is presented at the bottom of each bar. Whiskers represent the 95% confidence interval of the mean.

Source: On-road motor vehicle emissions in Paris Fact Sheet

Watch the explainer video from the TRUE Initiative below:
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